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By Matt McCloud
Journal articles, followed by books, are the most frequently cited types of publications in dissertations and theses. Citing journal articles can be more complicated than citing books because of the additional publication information usually associated with journal articles. What follows is an explanation of how to format references to these two types of material. Of course, these guidelines only scratch the surface of all the different kinds of formats available. Newspaper articles, magazine articles, edited books, e-books, audio-visual material-to name a few-will all be formatted slightly differently, so it is best to consult the APA’s publication manual for unique types of publications.
1. First, you will need to know the names of all authors, the year of publication, the title of the article, the journal title, volume and issue numbers, and the page range.
2. Next, if the article was retrieved online, you should locate its digital object identifier (DOI). The DOI is a number usually found on the first page of the article and begins with the number 10. If the article has no DOI, you should identify the uniform resource locator (URL) of the journal homepage. In other cases where there is no DOI, some universities will want reference to the database used to locate the article rather than the journal homepage.
3. Next, list the components in this order.
Author, A.A, Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal in
Italics, volume #, (issue #), pp-pp. doi:xxxxxx [ data base or journal URL if no DOI]
Yammarino, F. J., Atwater, L. E., & Spangler, W. D. (2004). Transformational leadership and team performance. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(2), 177- 193. doi: 10.1108/0953481041053060
Madzar, S. (2001). ‘Subordinates’ information inquiry: Exploring the effect of perceived leadership styles and individual differences. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,74, 221-232. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Global.
4. When citing books, use the following format:
Author, A.A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Perennial.
If the devil is in the details, then he has taken up permanent residence in APA formatting rules. Here some additional tips to help root him out:
1. Use the ampersand (&) instead of the word “and” before the last author in the list.
2. Watch out for the comma, especially making sure to include one before all ampersands.
3. Only the first letter of the article title and the first word after a colon in the article title are capitalized.
4. However, the first letter of each word (except for functional words such as prepositions and conjunctions) in the journal title is capitalized.
5. The volume number is italicized but not the issue number.
6. Be sure to indent seven spaces for lines subsequent to the first.
7. First and middle initials of authors are indicated unless the middle initial is not indicated in the original article.
8. For large cities such as London and New York, you do not need to include the country or state where the book was published when referencing books.
Matt McCloud has been helping dissertation students complete their ultimate educational goals for the last 10 years. He provides editorial, statistical, and research and design assistance. Find out more at http://apexdissertations.com/